Keyless Door Locks – The Advantages and Disadvantages of These Type of Door Locks

Keyless door locks are becoming more and more popular. No longer will you have to hunt for your key or fumble with a key in the middle of the night. As with all products, there are advantages and disadvantages of these kind of locks.

Keyless Door Locks: Advantages

You used to always have to worry about locking your keys in the house. With keyless door locks you don’t have to worry about that anymore. And you don’t have to worry about losing your key. You just enter your key code and your door unlocks. One of the best advantages is that you can let a repair man enter your home when you are not there. They enter your home, do what they need to do and leave. You get to change the code and they can’t copy a key when you don’t have one.

Keyless Door Locks: Disadvantages

There are two main disadvantages of these type of locks. One: somebody could guess your key code and get into your house. If you choose completely random numbers then this shouldn’t happen. Don’t choose your birthday or cell phone number. Two: If the power goes out, and your lock is purely run on electricity, you could be locked out of your house. But, if its run on a battery than you should be ok.

Keyless Door Locks: Remote Entry

There are remote entry locks. They have the disadvantages of losing it or forgetting it in the house. They cannot be copied like keys can be. If you lose the remote it will cost quite a bit to replace, seeing as they are quite expensive.


6 Key Benefits of Bluetooth Speakers

The portable Bluetooth speakers are a practical option for those in search of the easy, no wire installation in the home, or want the convenience of listening to music on the go. They are a great choice when there is no electric socket and gives instant access to your entire music collection while in the backyard, the beach or on a picnic. Plus, the speakers are available in many trendy, edgy, curved and sleek designs. The wide range of choices makes it easy to find speakers that complement the existing decor or even the device. Plus, in many situations they can be found at prices that are cheaper than conventional options.

Here are six benefits of the Bluetooth speakers:


A major positive of the Bluetooth speakers is the wireless functionality. There is no need to compromise with placement of the speakers or struggle with wires. The wireless setup is often a lot more aesthetically pleasing compared to the wired speakers. Also, it is quick and easy to get connected to a preferred devise without needing to plugin relevant wires.

Easy to use

They are easy to use with speakers only needing to be placed within a distance of about five meters or so from the sound source (MP3 player, computer, mobile, etc.), which is practical while sat on the beach or out in the garden.


Portability is a great feature of these speakers and the small sizes make traveling with high-quality sound that much easier. The portable speakers are sized to carry to the gym, park, office, or any other place that you want to listen to your favorite tunes.


While a great pair of headphones is appreciated for listening to music on the go, they do limit the use to one person. For those that want to be more social, the Bluetooth speaker offers a convenient solution to share your music collection with your family and friends.

Energy efficient

The power consumption of the Bluetooth speakers is intended to be a lot less than the alternatives to make them truly portable. There is no need to use the mains supply and will operate on rechargeable batteries. A high-quality set of batteries should have the ability to run for a full 48 hours, which is more than enough time while at the park or party.

Seamless streaming

The modern Bluetooth technology has the ability to stream data at very fast speeds which makes it easy to listen to the uninterrupted music once the play button is pressed. This even applies to the largest sound files.


5 Common iPhone Repair Problems to Deal With

Are you looking for a good iPhone repair company that can help you take care of your phone? You would certainly have paid quite a bit of money for this phone which would have become an important part of your life. You’ll need to ensure that it is always in good working condition. However, a few problems might pop up that you might have to face from time to time. The inability to use your phone will reduce your personal or official productivity considerably. In addition, it will cause you a great deal of frustration.

Common iPhone repair problems that need professional assistance are:

1. Cracked screen – Your iPhone has been equipped with a screen made of special glass that does not crack easily. Even so, you might succeed in breaking it if you drop the device once too often. You’ll then be unable to use it since it has only one button off screen.

2. Battery repair or replacement – If your phone’s battery is not working effectively then you won’t be able to get the best performance out of it. Your mobility will be affected drastically if you cannot get to use your phone from any location.

3. Water damage – It is very common to hear of a phone that has been dropped in the bath, toilet or swimming pool. Once water enters the case then there is a good chance that the device will not work properly.

4. Home button not working – The home button is a very important one but it can begin to stick because of constant use. You’ll find it very hard to have control over your phone until this button is repaired.

5. Dock connector not working – If this does not work properly then you won’t be able to charge your phone’s battery once it gets discharged.

The iPhone is a very sophisticated electronic device that can have problems from time to time. You’ll need a good iPhone repair company that will take care of these and other problems with a great deal of ease. It’s a good idea to locate one such company as soon as you buy your iPhone (or indeed any other smart phone) so that you are not dependent on the authorized repair store that will charge you a lot of money. Keep in mind that repairs have to be carried out by experienced technicians or else your iPhone might be ruined for good.


Vinegar – Is it Safe For You and the Environment?

Everybody has jumped onto the environmental bandwagon, given the impact of our planet’s challenges and problems with global warming. This is very positive indeed and we need to get more of the word out with the hope that people will want to contribute to saving our only home in this universe in any way they can.

Starting from home is a great and positive way to start helping the environment. From using low-energy light bulbs, proper weather sealants, environmentally friendly cleaners, better and effective means of reducing energy costs, there are many ways we can do this.

Many of us also have been taught to use Vinegar as a safer alternative to using things like laundry detergent, dishwashing detergent, cleaning our windows and so on. It does the trick naturally, right?

There is something that we need to be aware of, however. That is our due-diligence.

Vinegar, in it’s natural form, is a fermented product, which is an acid. You may ask, what’s the point?

Even though using vinegar is a much better alternative to using consumer cleaners that are rich in formaldehydes and other un-pronouncable chemical names, we have to consider what vinegar does as a liquid solution.

And it is actually a solution, especially if mixed with other things.

If we were to put baking soda into a cup of vinegar, what would happen? It would fizz up, right?

A good example of this is a science project many children would create, which is a homemade volcano. A paper-mache model of a volcano would be wrapped around a cup and tube of vinegar. When baking soda is poured into the volcano, out comes the fizz. It’s a whole lot of fun!

Now let’s consider another experiment. But please don’t do this at home, only think about this instead. Imagine you had an aquarium of goldfish, and they are your precious pets. Now, imaging pouring a cup of vinegar into the aquarium. What do you think would happen?

It’s not that the reaction of the fish would be in bouts of hysteria. If we think about it, we are ACIDIFYING the aquarium with the vinegar. And if the acid of the vinegar reaches the gills of the fish, what do you think would happen to the conversion of the liquid concentrate? The oxygen from the water cannot be used, because the acid takes precedence and becomes the very thing that the fish would be “breathing”. We can expect a dead fish or a sick fish as a result.

Now why am I writing this?

First of all, I am only writing this as something to think about and consider.

Secondly, even if we are using vinegar to clean our homes, remember, that vinegar has to end up somewhere later on. Whether it seeps into our soils, into our drainages, it still has to end up somewhere.

That somewhere is our LAKES and OCEANS.

If that vinegar ends up in our waters, especially salt waters, it can create a chemical that is similar to a battery. That, in itself, will also create lake acidity. In fact, it can have a dramatic influence and effect on our storm systems as well.

Now, let’s not get alarmed for a moment. This is just something to consider. We cannot just use something, think it is environmentally friendly and safe, without doing our due diligence first. Study everything as much as you can.

The saying goes: The real education begins once you’ve graduated from school.

Vinegar also can have some negative side effects in our bodies too. We need to have a good balance of alkaline and acidity in our bodies. If the acidity ratio to akalinity is out of balance and tipped more into the acidity side, we will experience burning sensations and side effects with our blood.

So… is vinegar, which is an acid, still a better alternative?

If we are to protect this planet, we also need to consider our waters too. They are one of the major influencers of our weather and the provider of moisture for all life on the planet. Without it, we will surely perish.

If vinegar is not a great alternative, then what is?

You may want to use a non-toxic cleaner that is not a chemical or an acid at all. In fact, it should always have to a be an akaline type cleaner either.

What you may want to use is a cleaner that not only cleans anything, but also is environmentally friendly, is safe for our waters and the waterlife, safe for all creatures and does not have any effect on our weather systems. In fact, it should be the kind that is derived from food and will break down into food for both plant and waterlife.

In fact, if it is super concentrated, you only have to use a little of it and have water as a friendly partner in cleaning with it. You can even save yourself hundreds and thousands of dollars for this solution.

Plus, it should be a cleaner that is safe enough for children to help you clean your home with. You know that parents would never want their children to handle poisons or even acids like vinegar. I know my mom wouldn’t let me handle it when i was a child.

Most of all, it should be fun to use, plus it should let you use your creativity!

If you are interested in such an alternative, visit my website in the resource box below and learn more.


Why is it Important to Further Develop Renewable Energy Technologies?

Renewable energy sectors can actually save the world from extinction. Today, the entire world is dependent on fossil fuels like oil and coal for their energy consumptions. From using electricity to transport, we depend on fossil fuels. The oil reserves are depleting in the world and that is the single biggest reason for the price hike in oil.

There are several sources of renewable energy like wind, solar power bio fuels and bio mass production, nuclear energy and so on. However, these technologies are in their early stage of development and it takes time to come up with something like electricity, for example. People are so used to 24 hour electricity supply that they will not have it any other way.

Transportation is largely dependent on oil and there is no substitute for it yet. Some of the technologies like ethanol, methanol and hydrogen can take care of short term needs. However, when it comes to bigger transportation needs, one needs oil which is a fossil fuel. Ships and airplanes cannot run on alternative fuel available today. It is too risky and just not viable economically.

However, for everyday consumption there are several alternatives including solar power and wind energy which are being put into use. Scientists believe that alternative energies have to be further developed simply because fossil fuels are not renewable. We may survive using fossil fuels, but future generations to come may suffer a lot. While using energy, we also need to learn to conserve energy and that is why depending on renewable sources of energy makes more sense for the betterment of the environment and as well as humanity.


Discrete Analyzers in the Environmental Laboratory


Think of your old manual Spectronic 20, or your direct reading spectrophotometer that you use in your lab. You line up your samples in a row. In front of them, you place some small sample cups or maybe even a series of cuvettes, and you pipette a known amount of sample into each cup. You then add a reagent and somehow mix the reagent and sample. You do this for each sample. You may have more reagents to add so you repeat the whole process until all reagents are added. Then you start a timer. When the timer beeps you know you have a certain “time window” to read the absorbance (or concentration) of your samples. You read by manually transferring the color-developed sample to a spectrometer cuvette, by using a peristaltic pump to transfer the sample to a flow cell already in the spectrometer, or by inserting the tube or cuvette that you used to develop the sample color in. Then, you press a button to send the reading to a printer, a computer program, or you manually record the reading onto a laboratory worksheet.

Did you shake and mix every sample exactly the same way every time? Will you mix them the same way every day? Will every analyst run them exactly the same way you have?

Is there color or turbidity in the samples? Should you zero your instrument with each sample, or only with reagent water blanks?

Is the exact time you read the final absorbance critical?

The process described is what you are automating by using a discrete analyzer. Instead of lining up samples, you are pouring aliquots into sample cups that are placed on an auto sampler tray. Instead of transferring a known amount of sample to a cuvette, the discrete analyzer does. Instead of adding reagents and mixing, the discrete analyzer does. Instead of starting a timer, the discrete analyzer does. Instead of reading the absorbance, recording the reading, and calculating a result the discrete analyzer does.

The analyzer has automated almost all the simple colorimetric methods for you. Sample volume is measured and dispensed exactly the same way, every time. Reagents are added and mixed exactly the same way every time. The timer is set and absorbance is measured exactly the same way every time. Results are calculated exactly the same way every time.

The discrete analyzer pipettes, dilutes, adds reagents, mixes, calibrates, measures, calculates, and reports all for you. You select a method by keyboard. There is no hardware to manually change, no cartridge to rinse out, no baselines to monitor, no wavelength filters to change. Sample and reagent volumes are determined by a selection in a computer program, not by the internal diameter of a peristaltic pump tube.

The discrete analyzer has done a lot for you but it cannot control nor do everything. It cannot accurately prepare the stock calibration standard for you, even though it can accurately dilute it. It cannot guarantee the standards and samples were placed on the auto sampler tray in the right order. It cannot prepare the reagents for you or guarantee they were placed in the right order; however, it can monitor their purity and remind you where they are supposed to go. It cannot make sure you’ve entered the proper sample ID for each sample position, however, it can guarantee that the result obtained for that sample position is traceable to the ID you entered. It cannot know the sample lot ID for each standard or reagent, but if you enter those ID’s into the software, it can guarantee traceability of those reagents with your sample sets.

The software and built in electronics constantly monitor and adjust lamp voltage so that absorbance readings do not drift. Drift is common in flow analyzers because the peristaltic pump tubing delivers reagents by proportion. The discrete analyzer delivers the exact amount of sample and reagent every time. These volumes do not change. The discrete analyzer has a fixed path length if the discrete analyzer does not transfer color-developed sample to another cuvette, or flow cell, for measurement. In addition, if, the discrete analyzer reads through the walls of the cuvette the calibration curve is usually more stable and or reproducible than your reagents and standards. 

Change your thoughts on calibration

Beer’s law states that the absorbance is equal to the absorbtivity times the path length times the concentration.  It seems, however, sometimes we do not believe that Beer’s law is a law. I say this because according to this law, the absorbtivity is a constant. When the path length is fixed (always the same), the path length is a constant as well making the only variable the concentration. Therefore, you prepare standards of a known concentration, measure the absorbance and determine the absorbtivity. Assuming you can prepare reagents exactly the same way every time, measure the same volume every time, and incubate your samples the same amount of time every time, there should be no reason to assume that the absorbtivity would change. If the absorbtivity does not change, then there is no reason to calibrate every day. Moreover, if the absorbtivity is not changing, you could actually be introducing error every time you calibrate because you may not be taking into account random errors that occur between analysts or even with yourself as you inadvertently vary your technique on a day-to-day basis.

As mentioned previously, daily calibration is required for continuous flow methods because flow methods proportion the reagents and sample using a peristaltic pump. Those pump tubes are changing with time changing the relative proportion of sample and reagents. Flow analyzers are still incredibly accurate, it is just you need to calibrate each time.

Calibrating consumes time. Especially accurate ones where you took great care to ensure your standards and reagents are fresh.

A manual spectrometer does not necessarily require a calibration each time. Many methods written for manual spectrometers merely say, “analyze a check standard with each sample set”. In fact, the stability of the calibration curve is the underlying concept behind direct reading spectrophotometers and filter wheel methods. For many colorimetric tests, the stability of the curve far exceeds the stability of the standards or the reagents. Some examples are nitrite and phosphate.

A discrete analyzer should not require daily calibrations and should allow us to extrapolate more the ion chromatography, gas chromatography, and manual direct reading spectrometer concept of the Continuing Calibration Verification, or CCV. As mentioned, the reason the discrete analyzer curves are stable is that the robot exactly reproduces everything every time. You cannot do this because you are not a robot, the discrete analyzer, however, is.

A manual method uses more reagent and sample volume because we, as humans, cannot work easily with small volumes. A flow system uses more reagent than a discrete analyzer because a flow instrument is continuously pumping reagent through the system.

Discrete analyzers that measure the sample absorbance within the same container that the reaction occurred generate less waste than instruments that wash the vessel, or use a flow cell. In fact, adequately rinsing a flow cell requires significant rinsing between samples making the waste volume generated essentially equivalent to that of a micro-flow Segmented Flow Analyzer, or Low Flow Flow Injection Analyzer.

The discrete analyzer uses significantly less reagent, and generates significantly less waste than manual methods. This chart illustrates an unscaled down manual method using the exact volumes described in Standard Methods. The waste generated for the manual method does not take into account washing of glassware. As mentioned earlier, an analyzer that washes cuvettes or rinses a flow cell will generate more waste than indicated here.

Eliminate the possibility of contamination, or false positives

The discrete analyzer measuring the absorbance of a color reacted sample contained in individual cuvettes. Unlike flow analysis, there is no possibility of interaction between samples and unlike flow analysis; the user can visually observe the reaction product during and after analysis.

Using a discrete analyzer, the analyst can observe the reaction during color development and after the test is complete. The analyst can remove the reaction segments and verify that dispensed volumes are repeatable, that there are no bubbles or turbidity, and that the color looks correct. A flow analyzer does not give the analyst the ability to visually examine and qualitatively guarantee the accuracy of his or her results.

A discrete analyzer dispenses, reacts, incubates, and measures all within the reaction cuvette without transferring to a flow cell. Analyzers that transfer to a flow cell are not “true” discrete analyzers, but instead, are hybrids between flow and discrete. The hybridization is done to achieve lower detection limits; however, the advantage of the individually contained reaction and absence of carryover is lost. In addition, since these analyzers require as much rinse as a flow analyzer to remove preceding samples, waste generation is as high as flow. Given this, and the increased possibility of environmental contamination or analyte loss that occurs from open-air heated reactions, you may as well have a flow analyzer.

Chemical reactions occur in individually contained segments

All discrete analyzers have reaction segments. Some analyzers do chemical reactions in a cuvette segment and then transfer the reacted sample to a flow cell. This type of analyzer is a hybrid of discrete and flow, and not a true discrete analyzer. A true discrete analyzer reacts and measures the sample within the optical cuvette. Some analyzers wash the optical cuvette between tests. Washing between tests enables more samples to be analyzed per cuvette; however, the washing cannot guarantee that there is no residual contamination that remaining after the washing process. Other discrete analyzers utilize disposable optical quality cuvettes.

Washing between tests enables more samples to be analyzed per cuvette; however, the washing cannot guarantee that there is no residual contamination not completely removed by the washing process. This residual contamination can come from preceding samples, or more likely, from the reagents used in processing the preceding samples. The built in computerized checking of optical quality cannot verify absence of chemical contamination.

Analyzers that use a flow cell still react samples in some sort of cuvette. It is the number of reaction vessels on the discrete analyzer that limit the number of tests that the discrete can run in a single walk away operation. If the discrete analyzer has 100 sample positions and 200 reaction cuvettes, then the analyzer can run 100 samples for 2 tests each. The discrete analyzer with the flow cell must rinse the flow cell between each sample, and rinse vigorously between each test. Consider that a two-channel flow analyzer can analyze 100 samples for two tests each in less than half the time as a discrete analyzer with a flow cell. Also, consider that the flow analyzer generates no more waste than the discrete analyzer with a flow cell. If the required testing is a lot of samples for one or two tests it makes more sense to use a flow analyzer.

Reagents can interfere as cross contamination between samples. Using disposable individual reaction cuvettes completely eliminates the possibility of contamination. For instance, the cadmium reduction nitrate test contains significant amounts of ammonia in the buffer reagent and phosphate in the color reagent. Using individual disposable cuvettes ensures that there is no contamination. Washing cuvettes, or using a flow cell, means you can never be sure.

Using disposable optical cuvettes is the only way you can guarantee no carryover between tests or samples. The concept is similar to use of disposable petri dishes, disposable pipette tips, and disposable hypodermic needles. The discrete analyzer easily and rapidly analyzes multiple tests on single sample solutions. Only disposable individually contained reactions ensure that there is no interaction between samples or tests.

Let the robot do your pipetting.

When you manually pipette samples you, hopefully, use a different pipette per sample. If not, you will at least rinse it in between samples, and possibly with sample prior to transferring your sample aliquot to the sample container. This is to avoid carryover between samples. A flow analyzer uses an auto sampler. The sampling probe immerses in the wash station rinsing the outside of the probe, and pulls wash solution from the station and into the analytical cartridge.

A discrete analyzer also uses a probe; however, it operates differently than flow analyzers. A discrete analyzer’s level detect mechanism ensures that the probe immerses into the sample or reagents no further than necessary to withdraw the required sample aliquot. The probe then washes itself on the outside at the wash station and pushes the sample or reagent out into the sample cuvette. Between dispenses, the probe pushes excess wash water out ensuring no carryover. In other words, unlike a flow system that only pulls sample in one direction, the sampling probe on a discrete analyzer is bidirectional pulling reagent and sample into its internal tubing only far enough to withdraw the correct volume and then dispensing it by pushing it out the other way.

The machine can think.

When doing a manual test you know if you ran out of reagent or sample. A flow analyzer does not know. A flow analyzer could end up aspirating from empty sample cups or empty reagent bottles all night long and think it is still running samples. A discrete analyzer with level detection prevents this. The level detect mechanism is a capacitance detector that senses the difference between liquid and air. The discrete software calculates the volume of reagents and samples based on the height of liquid. The software continuously monitors sample and reagent volumes and will not continue the test when it detects that reagents or samples have “run out”.

The sampling depth on a flow analyzer is usually adjustable by the user and is usually towards the bottom of the sample vial. On a discrete analyzer, the depth the probe immerses in a sample solution is a result of programming or instrument design. The depth sampled on the OI Discrete analyzer is determined by the level detect mechanism and the sample aliquot required for the test. For instance, if 200 micro liters is required the probe will immerse just below 200 micro liters as determined by the volume of the cup and the liquid level detected and withdraw a software-defined amount above 200 micro liters. In other words, the discrete analyzer samples from the top 300 micro liters of sample solution. The probe only immerses as far as it has to. This minimizes potential carryover contamination, and speeds the process. In this way dispensing and rinsing is fast and there is no sample or reagent carried to another on the sides of the probe. 

When sampling from the top of the sample cup there is a risk of loss of a volatile analyte from the top of the solution or the risk of the adsorption of an analyte from the laboratory air into the top of the solution. For instance, trace cyanide in near neutral solution can be slowly lost from the top layer of sample solution into the lab air. This is especially evident with lower concentrations such as 10 ppb.

Gain of the analyte is possible as well. Ammonia is a common laboratory contaminant. Ammonia readily adsorbs into acidified solutions. It is possible for ammonia to be “pulled” from laboratory air into the sample solution. A flow analyzer would not as readily detect this loss or gain because it samples from the bottom of the sample cup.

There are some drawbacks

A discrete analyzer reacts sample in a heated cup that is open to allow the probe to dispense samples and reagents. The heat increases reaction rates and is especially important for chemistries such as ammonia that are slow to develop color. In manual testing the reagents are added in open containers, however, the container shape can vary and the container can be capped during mixing, heating, and color reaction. When flow analyzers were first introduced one of the key advantages that gained its acceptance over manual methods was that reactions occurred enclosed within the tubing limiting its exposure to laboratory air. In this aspect, discrete analyzers are kind of a step backwards.

There are significant advantages.

Similar to holding a color developing reaction in its own container till it reaches a color maximum, discrete analyzers can also hold intermediate reactions for long periods of time without risk of carryover, dilution into a carrier reagents, or excessive dispersion. This can be especially useful in enzyme or reduction reactions where reaction rates are slow. A flow analyzer would require long delay coils resulting in very complex SFA chemistry manifolds. Often elevated temperature is used to speed reactions, but in some chemistry, there are limits to the maximum temperatures possible. Since discrete analyzer reactions are occurring in individually contained cuvettes, the time delay between reagent additions on discrete analyzers is limited only by software. This is a significant advantage over flow chemistry.

In manual methods, obviously, the operator prepares all the calibration standards from a stock solution, dilutes any QC samples from a stock solution, dilutes samples known to be over calibration prior to color development, and dilutes samples that were over calibration once he or she notices that they are. Unless you have an added auto-dilutor attached to your flow analyzer, you will still be diluting standards and over calibration samples. Auto-dilution is an integral function of a discrete analyzer. The dilutions can be preset during sample table entry if you know that the samples need to be diluted. Methods can be programmed such that they dilute every sample and standard all the time, or the instrument can be programmed so that over calibration, samples are diluted and re analyzed.

An analyst changes a manual or flow method from one to the next by memory, or by referring to the SOP. How well this particular analyst performs the procedure is dependent upon his mood, the time of day, his experience with the method, the availability of equipment, and many other unquantifiable variables. It is possible to obtain good results and bad results by the same manually performed method. A flow analyzer analyzes everything the same every time assuming it is set up the same every time. This assumption is valid with experienced flow analysis technicians; however, if the technician does not understand flow or if there are multiple users results will vary. Extensive training and documentation is necessary to guarantee that results conform to good automated lab practices.

The discrete analyzer method is selected by mouse click when scheduling analyses on the sample tray. The method conditions do not change. In fact, assuming you have accurately calibrated your method the calibration is stored within the method. This means that an untrained analyst that only knows what buttons to press is able to obtain identical results to even the most experienced analyst.

Most analytes performed in an environmental compliance laboratory cannot be bench spiked. If the analyte requires a preliminary distillation, digestion, or extraction the spiking is done prior to the preliminary sample process. I realize that many labs do not distill ammonia or Fluoride and I would argue that if you are reporting compliance testing for the clean water act you would better seriously consider changing your SOP. Other parameters that can’t be spiked are those that are too high to spike within the matrix without preliminary dilution, such as Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, and analytes like alkalinity that just are not spiked.

This shortens the list of potential analytes for the automatic spiking function to nitrite, phosphate, Sulfide, Chromium VI, and some others. On these, I defer back to the previous slide and ask if the potential error is worth the risk for so few tests.


Benefits of discrete analyzers include decreased reagent consumption, decreased waste generated, and ease of use among other things. The most significant advantage of the discrete analyzer, however, is that it can eliminate the traditional concept of routine analysis and allow you to run samples as you receive them instead of storing them until there is enough sitting around to make a flow or IC analysis worthwhile. If you take advantage of the calibration stability of the discrete analyzer, and accurately prepare a calibration that can then be used by almost any analyst in subsequent uses an added benefit is that the results are the same regardless of who uses the machine.

Think of those short holding time samples. The phosphate, the nitrites, the chromium VI, and residual chlorine. These analytes cause the environmental lab to stop everything just to get the analysis done on time. Think of the other analytes that come in periodically, but maybe not frequently. Possibly silica, ferrous iron and sulfide. How do you guarantee these tests followed the SOP? Instead of thinking of the discrete analyzer as something to replace a flow instrument, think of it as something to supplement a flow instrument. If you have hundreds of samples for one or two tests routinely and for the same analyte you are not going to save money by switching these tests to a discrete analyzer. Where you will save money and great effort is removing unnecessary strain from the flow analyzer and your analysts by performing the non – routine or “rush” tests on a discrete analyzer. It is possible for the sample login person to analyze samples as received for almost every colorimetric test that does not require a digestion. In other words, as soon as the sample is logged in it could be immediately run for nitrite, phosphate, chromium VI, nitrate, ammonia, chloride, and sulfate. In this example, instead of putting samples in a refrigerator to be gathered for analysis at a later time, they end up being run by ice chest and by client as soon as they are received.

If everything is to run on the discrete analyzer, then collect your samples in a vial that fits on the discrete analyzer. You no longer need to transfer liquid from container A to auto sampler vial B, the sample bottle can be the auto sampler vial. Not only does this save time, but it saves shipping as well. Instead of large ice chests, you use tiny mailers.

To summarize, the true advantage of a discrete analyzer is that its built in features allow any analyst to get the same results every time. Discrete analyzers are very simple to use requiring minimal software training. Once set up for your laboratory, properly applied methods allow you to modify your daily routines and analyze samples as soon as they come in. Whether you are an environmental lab, research, process control, or municipality discrete analyzers can be used effectively in your operation. Currently, the full power of discrete analyzers is limited by tradition and by regulation. Once we start to develop methods for discrete analyzers instead of using discrete analyzers to run methods developed for flow we will be able to see greater throughput, less variability, and lower MDL.


How To Maintain Your Re-Chargeable Batteries

If you have rechargeable batteries, it’s your responsibility to take good care of them, for them to give you a long service. The cool thing is that there are plenty of things you can do to make it possible. Some of the things you can do include:

Tips on how to maintain your batteries

There are plenty of stuff you should do. When making the purchase always remember that a rechargeable battery is as good as its charger; therefore, you should never fast charge it. When you charge your battery too fast, you put it at the risk of overheating which puts it in great danger of getting damaged.

Just as you should never fast charge the units, you also should never over discharge them. To be on the safe side, wait until they show the low battery signal. Don’t wait until the charge is completely gone as it will destroy the battery.

You should be cautious of how you use the batteries. As rule of thumb, you should never mix different batteries. The best way of going about it is using batteries of the same capacity, brand, and chemistry. You also should never mix rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries as they have different voltages. This results in them damaging each other.

You should be cautious of how you charge the units. When it comes to the chargers, go for high-quality chargers that won’t overcharge the units. For a great experience, work with high-quality smart chargers. You should regularly check the charging of the batteries to avoid charging them beyond the rated capacity. Some people make the mistake of leaving the batteries in the chargers for more than 24 hours. This shouldn’t be you.

In the bid of maintaining the units in great shape, you should avoid using ultra-fast chargers. Keep off chargers offering 1-hour charge. In most cases, the fast chargers charge the batteries up to 70%. They don’t charge it up to 100%.

Once every few months, you should discharge your battery fully and recharge it. This is to prevent the battery from forming crystals resulting to damage to the battery. You also should regularly use the batteries. You should note that when you don’t use the units for long, crystals begin to form.


These are tips on how to maintain your rechargeable batteries in good shape. To increase the chances of the units lasting for a long time, always invest in high-quality units.


Homemade Carp Bait Recipes And Secrets Of Salts To Improve All Your Fishing Baits!

Why do carp like salt? How and why does using salt, and substances rich in mineral salts improve your catches? I have fished in rivers where the saline conditions mean that bass, flounder as well as carp and eels all thrive to the surprise of many anglers. There is far more to carp and their needs, their reactions and feeding responses to salts in all forms of baits (including boilies and pastes!) Here are many expert answers plus exciting suggestions that will make you think and catch you more fish!

Salts are highly attractive to carp; they are highly ionic, so attract water. For example one example of this property is when you leave salt in air and it cakes. This entire point is extremely significant to optimised bait function!

Most people think of common table salt as salt, but there are many forms and combinations that we can exploit to catch more fish! (Note that chlorine for example is highly reactive; think hard about this point because making baits reactive is highly beneficial to your results!) Sodium and chloride ions are required by all known life in minimal qualities, so instinctively carp are drawn to salty substances.

Technically I’m not sure you term them feeding triggers, as much as they are incitants and bait enhancers in many ways, but they are a powerful signal when in solution in water; inducing much further investigation by fish that’s for sure! For example, a fishmeal and marine spod mix is certainly boosted by additional salts and salty substances (compared to adding none.) In my experience fish tend to feed in a more measured more leisurely prolonged mode with added salts, in contrast to certain other additives which can lead to a frenzy of short-lived extremely hard feeding. Of course both approaches can be utilized, and combined together.

Throw lumps of rock salt in the water and carp are sure to investigate. Remember that natural river and lake waters are composed of dissolved minerals, including salts. Some of these essential minerals are even absorbed directly into fish via their skin. Minerals range from pure elements to simple salts etc, and carp respond to endless forms of them for many wide ranging reasons, not merely connected with essential nutritional requirements

Notice the different taste of table salt compared to sea salt or rock salt. I am certainly not suggesting our taste, smell or perceptions of palatability and depth and richness of profile etc is identical to carp (different brain and nervous wiring and conjunctions etc but you’ll notice quite a significant difference! Rock and sea salt is far richer due to the range of minerals and traces etc it contains; and is far more palatable to carp and far more potent as an enhancer in baits! It’s another reason I avoid using refined table salt, although if I have nothing else I use it in ground baits for instance, but it means the bait will be under-optimised!

Most rock salt products are derived from dry deposits of ancient seas that dried up, but the funny thing is that the underlying bedrock of lakes, even clay lining lakes that hold the water, are mineral rich and influence the potential of life and growth rates of particular carp waters. I find Rainbow Lake in France fascinating not merely for the range of carp strains stocked and their phenomenal growth rates, but wonder if the carbon naturally in the underlying lake bed is a significant factor too, combined with the silicate (mineral), sandy nature of the lake bed; I’m sure it all connects.

In a funny kind of way it is ironic that the calcium and phosphate that fish absorb through their skin in solution in water, (and consume in their foods) has ended up in their water due to ancient animals biomineralising (producing minerals biologically,) to produce hard structures. For example chitin in shells of mollusks and crustaceans for instance; which when they die then form phosphate and carbonate salts of calcium, deposits laid down under ancient sea beds over eons, so forming carbonate base rock like chalk and limestone rocks beneath or surrounding lakes and rivers etc.

Eventually these minerals are transferred into lake water by natural processes over time, and then they become part of fish. For example the vital collagen connective tissues and bones etc! Everything is connected; fish and humans really are what we eat! (And of course ultimately, ancient teleost fish of which modern carp are part are our long-lost ancestors so we share many common processes and features that we can exploit, that we can relate to our own food to use within our fishing baits, to make catching carp easier!)

On a different note, dissolved minerals, salts in solution (in water) mean that carp are swimming within an electricity-conducting electrolyte. This is very significant indeed because for one thing, the power of many bait substances can be enhanced by exploiting natural carp sensitivities to minerals and mineral salts, either in supplemental forms or as intrinsic parts of natural foods.

We well know that carp are seriously stimulated by pre-digested or hydrolysed ingredients and additives in dry or liquid forms of many kinds containing many salts forms in the chemical reactions involved. It is my belief that because carp are so sensitive to subtle electrical fields, that this is all part of the impacts of baits that can further be manipulated and exploited, and use of salts can obviously a part of this approach to make baits far more easily detected. It might be suggested that you can make your baits more of a noticeable highly subtle electrical energy battery. Personally I am certain that carp detect fields around the area of baits which are far from limited to merely conventional electric or electromagnetic energies.

Carp certainly are just as sensitive and curious to differences in within the water that they detect as to instinctively responding to any arbitrary nutritional signals. For example, a localized change in salinity might well be good cause for investigation, besides the presence of any particular concentrated substance issuing forth from your baits. Of course, fish meal and other marine based baits, predigested additive-rich baits for example can be rich in salts and be significantly salty, intrinsically enhancing and improving bait performance. However, these things can be boosted in many ways using salts and salty substances and their special reactions with a range of bait substances.

I think the reaction between salts and for example alcohol flavours, organic acids, and other things like citric acid, or acetic acid in vinegar (the fermentation of ethanol is used to produce vinegar), and many various other examples, are all highly important reactions within baits and in solution in regards to salts. I’m sure such things are very significant in terms of us being able to on purpose create heightened impacts at carp receptor sites in sensory zones, such as the skin, throat, barbels, lips, palatial area inside the mouth etc that make carp even more enthusiastic for our fishing baits!

Certain saturated carboxylic acids are certainly some of the secret components in more than just a few highly successful commercial bait company products. Anyway you can get an idea here of the fact that experimenting with salts, salty substances and flavours for instance can really pay off big-time in enhancing your catch results!

Do not forget that any boilie base mix can be adapted for use as the base for a specialised ground bait mix, a spod or stick mix, or even used to impart properties and additional stimulation when preparing hemp and sweetcorn and tiger nuts and luncheon meat etc. I am always looking for more information about salts, even in dog and cat food in soft and hard foods.

The presence of additional salt added in the manufacture of Marmite is intriguing as are the salts in yeasts in many formats and formats, including within the classic carp bait additive Phillips Yeast Mixture. Phillips Yeast Mixtures and also very many liquid tonics and so on and other powder or crystalline substances used to improve pet bird, dog and cat health can be exceptionally rich in stimulatory mineral salts etc and for years I have done loads of research on this whole area of bait substances for inclusion in my ebooks.

Salt-rich additives and ingredients are incredibly potent for catching carp and work synergistically (in combination) with other material you have within your baits, from the carbohydrate and protein ingredients in your baits, to liquid foods, flavours and even other enhancers and sweeteners. Thinking about it, for what purposes are salty things like Belachan, yeast extract and soy sauce used for when added to other foods? Enhancing and enriching the sensory impacts and duration of impacts of foods; salty substances are extremely well proven to improve palatability. Carp baits and human foods can be improved by the use of salty substances and salt-related reactions of many kinds.

Include squid extract containing bile salts for example, fermented shrimp powder, other fermented products including miso and soy sauce, other fermented protein-rich materials such as Belachan, yeast extract, seaweeds like kelp products in powder, granules and liquid complexes. This enhancer does not upset insulin release unlike MSG which is harmful in many ways including internal bleeding on a cellular level in the brain.

Many people feel ill after consuming MSG, and indeed it is the reason for the so called Chinese restaurant syndrome. Yet such is the degree of MSG-producing company cover ups about its true impacts, that few anglers know it is harmful. While chatting with Frank Warwick recently about enhancers etc even he did not appear to realise this at that point in time. Pure MSG is vastly different to naturally-occurring glutamate that carp and humans naturally consume with no harmful side effects!

There has over the years been a gigantic effort by MSG manufacturers including Anjinomoto to not only sell the idea of the fifth taste but to get people to accept MSG and even promote it as a good thing! The result is that now as people are becoming more aware that MSG is a harmful substance food manufacturers are not putting MSG on the ingredients list and use other words and misleading and vague terms including glutamate, or vegetable extract, yeast extract Many alternative taste enhancers are available that do not harm carp! I might add that sea weeds and tomato puree are rich in umami taste components.

The tastes you can exploit in your baits include sweet, sour, bitter and salty as well as savouryness (or umami.) Very many carp baits are bitter yet successful; lots of more acidic concentrated flavours make baits taste bitter. Personally speaking I have had great success with many new unique homemade bait recipes that to me have tasted really bitter, or surprisingly sour.

I used to have the group mentality that appears to promote sweeter or perhaps more salty or savoury tastes of baits I make, but no matter what the taste of a bait is to me (and whether I personally like it or not,) it does not stop fish repeatedly enthusiastically consuming baits I may or may not like!

Carp consume forms of algae as it such an incredibly rich digestible a basic food for survival. But if you have ever taken different forms of algae as a health supplement you will know it is not exactly pleasant to humans and I find it unpalatable and avoid trying to taste it at all!

The fact is that carp nerves are wired up differently to humans; their receptor proteins and receptor site adaptations, degrees of sensitivities and nerve connections with their brains from skin, gut wall, fin face, lateral line etc all differ in very many respects to humans! For an angler to state that carp do not like bitter baits is not especially helpful as this is a confusion of many things on many levels. Even the question of the actual degree of taste of a bait as a whole tasted in the mouth in human alkaline solution, compared to carp tasting bait in solution in neutral or acidic water makes things less clear!

Carp are very sensitive to salinity (salt or mineral salt) changes in solution in the water surrounding them. This is incredibly powerful advantage because like humans, fish need to maintain a certain equilibrium of liquid pressures within their body cells to stay alive and function healthily – note the famous feeding trigger betaine (there are various forms,) is vitally intrinsic in this role too! (You may have heard about isotonic baits…) Being sensitive to salts allows fish such as carp to discern many opportunities and threats in the water. For one thing, although carp can survive in brackish water their sensitivity alerts them to moving into water that is too salty for their bodies to handle. That’s one reason why carp are not roaming the seas!

Note that natural calcium chloride is the predominant component of familiar table salt, is essential to carp, but and this is really important, you will do better by supplying carp with fine or coarse sea or rock salt instead, as this supplies a potently stimulating wealth of vital minerals and traces which will turn carp on and raise the nutritional value and attraction of your baits.

I personally highly recommend using coarse crunchy kelp, and fine seaweed powder, plus coarse and fine sea salt for example, together. With salts you only need minimal amounts to make a difference, and use of salts is not strictly limited to adding salt to boilie, stick or other mixes and of course endless carp baits can be enhanced using many sources of salts. Crushed Himalayan rock salt has very highly significant unique properties but there are far more sources of potent salts than just this and sea and other rock salts.

Do not ignore the fact that salts are involved in digestion; this is a very important aspect of baits I know most anglers have yet to really understand and harness within baits. I do not consider that adding salts to baits is the optimum way to exploit salts and in fact having salts being deliberately actively created within baits dynamically through various processes is far more potent, but these are secrets I do not give away for free! Revealed in my unique readymade bait and homemade bait carp and catfish bait secrets ebooks is far more powerful information look up my unique website (Baitbigfish) and see my biography below for details of my ebooks deals right now!

By Tim Richardson.


Zoom MRT 3 Reviewed! How Does the Zoom Micro Drum Machine Compare to the Rest?

Although the Zoom Micro drum machine (Zoom MRT-3 Rhythm Trak) weighs less than a pound and a half, this thing is certainly a force to be reckoned with.

With 396 Preset Patterns, 99 User Patterns, and 99 Songs, the Zoom MRT 3B Drum Machine can accompany your voice, guitar, or other instrument right out of the box!

Of course, if you like to create your own drum beats, the Zoom Rhythmtrak MRT 3B has you covered, and then some! How does 199 sound sources, 50 preset kits, and 20 user kits grab ya?

Add to that the fact that this thing is fully portable, and you’ve got a pretty outstanding beat machine at your disposal. It takes 4 AA alkaline batteries to power the Zoom MRT 3 for a full 15 continuous hours! This is great for the street musician, as well as anyone who likes to take their music on the road!

And the sound quality is quite magnificent. Very rich and realistic sounding drum voices (comparable to the Alesis SR-16), coupled with total user-friendliness make this one of the best beat machines you can buy for the money. This is especially true if you run it through the right kind of amplification. I recommend any of the Roland KC (keyboard combo) amps… these things were born to bring out the best in your drum machine!

As far as the cost for the Zoom Micro Rhythm Trak drum machine is concerned, it’s pretty reasonable for the quality you’re getting. 10 years ago this thing would have cost you several hundred dollars (had the technology existed) – but you can pick up a brand new model for under a hundred bucks today.

This is one of the easiest drum machines in the world to figure out. There’s nothing intimidating or “techy” about the the Zoom MRT3B Micro Rhythmtrak. Just plug and play – and even plugging is optional, thanks to its battery-powered capabilities!

Of course, this drum machine doesn’t boast some of the incredible instrumental capabilities of its big brother, the Zoom RT-23 RhythmTrak, such as bass guitars and human beat-box sounds… but we’re obviously looking in a different price range here! However, if you’ve got the extra 50 dollars or so to spare, you may be better off going with the “full meal deal” you get with the RT 23.

The Micro Rhythm Trak is definitely worth a look if you like great functionality coupled with true simplicity… and portability. Fantastic little drum machine and an excellent value!


Product Review – The Streetwise SW1000 1 Million Volt Stun Gun

The Streetwise 1000K stun gun model is one of the strongest on the market. According to the manufacturer, it is capable of administering a 1,000,000 volt charge. To keep the unit non-lethal, the amperage is quite low by design. It is a rather tall unit as it holds three 9 volt batteries. (Less powerful stun guns typically take one battery.) It is 8 1/4 inches tall, 2 1/4 inches wide and 1 1/8 inches thick. The unit’s case is a matte black plastic as are all stun guns of this nature. It features a master on-off switch and a firing rocker switch. This switch must be held to fire the gun. Once you lift your finger off the switch, the firing stops. Also included is a 130db alarm.

The Streetwise SW1000 features a disable pin with loop that you attach to the underside of the unit. You put the loop around your wrist. If an attacker snatches the gun away from you, the pin will pull out of the unit and it will be completely disabled,. That way the attacker cannot use the gun on you.

Perhaps “gun” is a misnomer because this tall rectangular device looks nothing like a gun. Would stun guns be less controversial if they weren’t called guns at all? Perhaps. It should be noted that stun guns like this one fire nothing through the air (except a spark between its two electrodes). It is not a TASER. The unit must be held to the aggressor’s skin or clothing to be effective. The effects are temporary and non-lethal unlike a firearm.

As befitting a high voltage unit, this device sports two 3/17 inch diameter electrodes quite a bit wider than lesser units. The snapping sound when activated is louder with a stronger visible spark. The intimidation factor is high. It is known that some aggressors will immediately flee when confronted with the menacing sound and site of the arcing electrodes.

This device includes a 130 db alarm which is unusual in a traditionally shaped stun gun. The alarm button is right underneath the toggle on/fire switch for easy accessibility. It is suggested to try the alarm first in an actual encounter as this may be enough to scare off your enemy.

In summary the Streetwise SW1000 stun gun is an impressive high voltage unit. The case is sturdy and comes with a nylon holster with belt loop. Installing three 9 volt batteries take a bit of finagling to fit inside the unit but once in, they stay put. The manufacturer recommends using name brand alkaline batteries for reliable performance.


Streetwise has now updated the SW1000 to the rechargeable SWT5000R Toucdown model. It features the same tall profile but it has much more power and a built-in LED flashlight.